A WAKE-UP CALL FOR THE PHILIPPINES (BY: MA ALTHEIA NAVARRETE)

The Philippine Demography presents and shows demographic elevation and collision in the whole society of the Philippines. It shows the study of changes such as number of deaths, birthrate, some illnesses that occur over a period of time in human populations.

A population-control bill in the Philippines is likely to be passed that supports coercive government-funded family-planning initiatives for demographically targeted populations. If passed, one year or even one generation from now, the root problems that this bill seeks to address will still exist. In fact, they’re likely to be exaggerated. Philippines faces increasing economic, socio-cultural, political, and security problems while their populations age start to decline. Widespread use of contraceptives preference for having fewer children pushed the fertility rates of developed countries below replacement levels. The population control program began in the Philippines through the use of the mass media, legislation, government policies, and the promotion of contraceptives. This program has succeeded in bringing down Philippine fertility rates during the past three and a half decades, principally by persuading people to have smaller families. Mortality and life expectancies depend much on the medical sciences´ capacity to reduce deaths and prolong life, but these have their limits. Improvement in health care will not be unending. When the period of improvement ceases, that is, when infant and child mortality has been lowered to the minimum, and health care can no further extend life expectancy, the large number of deaths among the by then immense elderly population will contribute to population decline. The Philippines is not exempted from the global trend of decreasing TFRs (Total Fertility Rates) and increasing life expectancy, which cause world population today to age and later to decline. The economic, social, security, and other implications of this trend are forcing many governments to encourage citizens to have more babies for the sake of the nation, and to facilitate immigration to have more laborers and to bodily replenish their population. Meanwhile, in the Philippines, which will probably experience the same problems within decades, many legislators and agencies still push for intensified population control. Population control is done not only through the distribution of contraceptives, but worse, by creating a mentality that goes against large families in sex education modules and in the mass media, and by creating an atmosphere less and less conducive to larger families. One of population increase is on employment rate. The employment rate or the proportion of employed persons is the total of labor force recored. According to my further research, Labor Policy in the Philippines is specified mainly by the country’s Labor Code of the Philippines and through other labor laws. They cover 38 million Filipinos that belong to the labor force and to some extent, also the overseas workers. They aim to address Filipino workers’ legal rights and their limitations with regard to the hiring process, working conditions, benefits, policymaking on labor within the company, activities, and relations with employers. The Philippines is a country that has one of the biggest available pools of qualified workers. Unemployment occurs when people are without work and actively seeking work. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force. Another is the Poverty Incidence. Poverty remains a critical social problem that needs to be addressed in the Philippines. Functional Literacy rate is higher among persons with higher level of education. Without the basic ability to understand simple reading material, students can’t absorb information from textbooks for study purposes, nor do they easily comprehend general literature for functional use or pleasure. These children are at a great disadvantage in all areas of learning; from elementary school and throughout their adult lives. Students with weak reading and numeracy abilities will often drop out of school. Unfortunately that means their access to many profitable, knowledge-based jobs is limited. In fact, it appears that an individual’s employment outcome can be significantly affected without strong literacy skills – and is even more of a factor than whether they graduated high school or not.

Demographics are used by governments, corporations and non-government organizations to learn more about a population’s characteristics for many purposes, including policy development and economic market research. Sadly, Philippine poverty statistics support the view that recent economic growth has not been inclusive. One reason is that the growth of the agriculture sector has been sluggish. Yet, more than half of the population depends for their livelihood on agriculture and about one-third of the work force are gainfully employed in the sector. The administration officials misjudge the thinking of the average man on the street. They thought Filipinos prefer dole-outs to work. They were wrong. Having a job is better because it is not only good for one’s pocket but it’s also good for one’s soul. Overpopulation may be debatable, but poverty and unsustainable practices are reality and life is geared towards raising consciousness about alternative ways to operate as a society.

SOURCES:

http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/demographics.asp

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty_in_the_Philippines

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unemployment#Measurement

http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/259277/population-growth-philippines-problem-or-potential-christopher-white

  • BY: MA. ALTHEIA NAVARRETE

Economy of the Philippines

Philippine Economy

BY: Kiara Daenielle G. Lazo

BSOT-1A

First, what is “economy”? An economy or economic system consists of the production, distribution or trade, and consumption of limited goods and services by different agents in a given geographical location. The economic agents can be individuals, businesses, organizations, or governments. The Economy of the Philippines is the 39th largest in the world, according to 2014 International Monetary Fund statistics, and is also one of the emerging markets. The Philippines is considered as a newly industrialized country, which has been transitioning from one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. In 2014, the GDP by Purchasing power parity was estimated to be at $692.223 billion. Most industries in the country are concentrated in urban areas around Metro Manila, while Metro Cebu is also becoming an attraction for foreign and local investors.

The Philippine economy has had significant ups and downs, since the end of World War II. Originally, the country had a fast growing economy and was at one time one of the richest countries in East Asia. During the regime of Ferdinand Marcos, the economy at first grew but eventually slowed and even turned negative because of corruption, and political uncertainty and unrest. A severe recession happened in 1984-1985 and the economy shrunk by more than 10%. In 1998, the Philippine economy deteriorated as a result of Asian financial crisis. However, the administration of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo pushed toward faster economic growth and Philippines once again re-emerge as one of the growing economies in Southeast Asia.

But the Philippines never had it so good. But with a slowing global economy and an election coming up in 2016, what can it expect from the future? The economy has been performing creditably. GDP grew at an average of 5.9 per cent over the last three years amid a lingering global economic slowdown and natural disasters. The economy has outperformed most ASEAN countries in the past few years and will be a major player in the envisaged ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). However, the official growth target of 6.5–7.5 per cent for 2014 has been revised downward to 6–7 per cent following government underspending, weak performance of agriculture and the impact of natural disasters. The ADB has also lowered its GDP forecast to 6 per cent. The government expects a rebound to a 7–8 per cent growth rate in 2015, which is expected to be maintained until the end of the current administration’s term in 2016. This bold forecast seems based on strong fundamentals: a stable macroeconomic framework (a regime of low inflation and larger fiscal space), continued rise in remittances from Filipino workers overseas (around US$23 billion in 2013), a resurgent manufacturing sector and well-performing service sector, a consistent build-up of foreign exchange reserves (currently at US$79.8 billion) and credit rating upgrades from international credit rating agencies. Yet there are some potential troubles — external and internal — looming on the horizon that could, if not properly managed, spoil this impressive performance and dampen future growth prospects. The economy is becoming more integrated into the global and regional economies, so weaknesses in major trading partners will impact on domestic growth prospects. Trade is largest with East Asia (51 per cent of total value exports and 39 per cent of total value of imports) and ASEAN (16 and 22 per cent of exports and imports respectively).

As of 2015, there are some reports highlights. Economic growth slowed down to 5.3 percent in the third quarter of 2014, due to weak government spending on the demand side and agricultural production on the supply side, and Government consumption contracted by 2.6 percent while infrastructure spending fell by 6.2 percent. Contributing to weak government spending are the Supreme Court decision which found some provisions of the Disbursement Acceleration Program unconstitutional, budget execution bottlenecks, and slow disbursement for Typhoon Yolanda reconstruction. Despite the slowdown, more than a million jobs were created in October 2014, although the quality of jobs remains a challenge. The 2013 Annual Poverty Indicator Survey (APIS) finds that real income of the bottom 20 percent grew much faster than the rest of the population. The survey also confirms that the government’s conditional cash transfer program is reaching the poor, as reflected in the substantial growth of domestic cash transfers to the bottom 20 percent.

Eventhough Philippines has been through a lot of roller coaster ride, Philippines manage to stand and make a better economy for us, Filipinos. Now, Philippines is one of the fastest economy in Asia. It is needed to continue this momentum in the next 15 years so that the lower income residents will feel the growth. As time goes by, do we need to settle for a “better economy” Is “better” enough for us? Why can’t we make it best? You know why because there is no good in corruption. We’re in reality, let’s say that the Philippine economy is getting better. But don’t be blind about the real issues. But then, there is no point in blaming. The assigned people should make a plan or move to have a best economy. Because Philippines will and can make a change!

Source:

http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/philippines/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_the_Philippines


The Pioneering Minds of Sociology and Anthropology by KRISTIENE FERNANDEZ

Auguste Comte

Auguste Comte was best known for founding positivism, a philosophical system that acknowledges only observable, natural phenomena and that attempts to use scientific law as the basis for comprehending relationships between observable facts. Comte also is recognized as one of the originators of the science of sociology, believing that human societies are natural systems whose order and progress can be studied through scientific methodology. A deliberate and rationalistic thinker, Comte hoped to use his science of sociology to achieve spiritual and social reform and, ultimately, a new social system.

Karl Marx

The most influential socialist thinker from the 19th century is Karl Marx. Karl Marx can be considered a great philosopher, social scientist, historian or revolutionary. Marx proposed what is known as the conflict theory. The conflict theory looks at how certain social interactions occur through conflict. People engage in conflict everyday to gain more power then others in society. Karl Marx is known for studying the conflicts that occur between different classes. Karl Marx has introduced some radical ideas and theories to society through his writings. Karl Marx describes two theories in the Communist Manifesto. One is his political theory and the other his economic theory. His political theory is about class struggle. Most of the class struggle encompasses his ideas of oneself in the workplace and life in general. Karl Marx believed that class struggle would be the seed for revolution. He thought that as long as there was competition between capitalists, capitalism was bound to fail. He believed that if members of the working class work together, and believe in the same ideals, they can definitely bring about significant social changes.

Emile Durkheim

A prominent figure in the French school of Sociology, Durkheim is best known for his establishment of a social theory which views sociology as a natural science subject to empirical study. Unlike his contemporaries, including English philosopher Herbert Spencer and anthropologist Edward Tylor, who emphasized the role of the individual in the development of cultural phenomena, Durkheim asserted the converse, maintaining that, although individuals comprise society, society is a separate and distinctive entity or reality, a causal result of the associations, reactions, and combinations of individuals’ behaviors and psychic realities. His most influential contribution to social theory is his concept of the social fact, which he defines as “ways of acting, thinking, and feeling, exterior to the individual and endowed with a power of coercion.” Suicide is perhaps the most personal action an individual can take upon oneself and yet it has a profound social impact. Perhaps this is because social relationships play such an important role in its causation. It is also, perhaps the least understood crime, or act, due to the fact that obviously, the dead can’t speak. Emile Durkheim was instrumental in bringing a new understanding of suicide, when in a sociological study he conceived his theory of suicide, and it’s relationship with society. Perhaps put more accurately, his theory was about society, and its relationship with suicide.

For Durkheim, suicide was a symptom of a wider social disease. To cure it, society had to be reformed. Emile Durkheim was first and foremost a sociologist, so his studies are sociological in nature. His main principle was that social facts such as suicide must be studied as realities external to the individual. Suicide, although apparently a highly personal act, was explicable only by the state of the society to which the individual belonged.

BY: KRISTIENE FERNANDEZ