In his theory, I agree for the Guardians to rule. Life is full of complex diversities. And it is in these diversities that philosophers find their calling. They are “morally fit and intellectually upright”. These can coincide with his another statement of the guardian class not living the life of luxury. The guardian class, knows the balance of life. As their main vocation, they will do what is expected of them. They will rule, with great fervor for the state. It is for the upbringing of a united nation that they will serve their utmost. No malice and no hidden agenda. Only for the good of the state that they fulfil their job and this is what Plato sees as the perfect state.
Man who is governed by law is a real man. He who is not must be a beast. For man is intelligent and knows the difference between right and wrong.
For a state to attain their highest point, they need to unify their citizens. Unity starts in the family. There are two ways to form the state. The union of man and woman. And the master slave relationship. For Aristotle, man is distinguished between master and slave through their physical capabilities. Some are born to lead and some are born to follow. There’s no discrimination between. Both parties must respect each other and know their limits.
Plato believes in the rule of the many. However, Aristotle believes in the rule of the few. Only the qualified personas, men and women can govern the state.
His theory states that the state must be governed by a divine reason. The state is an inclination to God.
Man is a social being. He cannot survive without the help of others. Either a beast or a god can do so. Man is created to be united with other men. Family is the basic social unit of life. Unity is needed to form Aristotle’s idea of a perfect state. God gave the animals all they needed. They have easy access to their basic needs. Why is it that man has to exert an effort? He needs others to help him.
St. Thomas says that a true leader is in line with his followers. He therefore used the analogy of the body and its soul. A soul without its body is nothing, so is a soul without its body.
Summing it all up, God is involved in the governs of a state and everything is with divine reason.
Niccolo Machiavelli’s theory is an interesting one.One that could either result in utter chaos or complete order. According to him, a state should be governed by force. Enforcing fear into people can result to submission and therefore makes the leader a tyrant.
But, somehow, I agree to his perspective. There were leaders before that practiced this but their priority was the people. I think, it just takes the right kind of person to rule.
The people who can’t see the advantage of this kind of government are ignorant. Take the case of Marcos.
Our selfish desires can destroy the state and this is what Hobbes is concerned of.
He gave an option, which is to give our complete submission to a sovereign or if not, we’ll arrive at what he calls “state of nature”. State of nature is comparable to a civil war. A war that is a result of man’s selfishness.
Hobbes proposes the “Leviathan”. Leviathan is a body politic. It portrays a gigantic human form built out of the citizens with the leader as the head.
Hobbes got this concept from the bible, Leviathan is Hebrew for sea monster.
In his concept, the powers of the government is divided into three.
The executive, legislative, and the judicial.
The executive makes the law, the legislative executes the law, and the judicial interprets the law.
He sees the advantage because the powers are separated. Less tyranny. Several states have adopted this type of government.
So far, his idea is proven effective and remarkable.