The Grim Reality (By: Katrina Mae Yu)

Is it any wonder why we have fallen behind our Asian neighbors, and are likely to be left behind by the rest of developing Asia? We’re still debating such rudimentary matters as the population issue and fiscal deficits, while our neighbors have moved on to focus on more contemporary economic concerns, such as global competitiveness, investment climate and productivity growth. With a population of 100 million and with an estimate of only 38 million members employed, the Philippines is the 12th most populous and is among the poorest countries in the world.

Add to this information, Filipinos rely mostly on imports to feed themselves. Our main staple is rice but Filipinos are incapable of producing enough rice to feed its entire population. In terms of income, the country also relies heavily on the international community to provide jobs for skilled and non-skilled Filipinos with an estimated of more than one million (and counting) Filipinos working abroad as overseas foreign workers (OFWs). Overcrowding is one of the Philippine society’s problems due to government mismanagement; crime rate goes up along with the growing population because people fight for the same limited resources. Criminals end up in equally overcrowded and almost inhumane prison cells as well and as a result, there is no rehabilitation program in place for convicted criminals. This means that the minute they rejoin society, chances are, they will go back to doing criminal activities. Out of the country’s 100 million, only an estimated 38 million are productive or employed. Obviously, there are more Filipinos who are part of the unproductive members of society and who do not contribute to the growth of the economy. They in fact, just occupy precious space and pull down the economy.

Economic studies, especially the experience in Asia show that rapid population growth and high fertility rates, especially among the poor, exacerbate poverty. To address this economic problem, the RH Bill or the Reproductive Health Bill is fully implemented in the Philippines. The bill promotes information on and access to both natural and modern family planning methods, which are medically safe and legally permissible. Their common purpose is to prevent unwanted pregnancies which may be a probable cause of the rise of population.

Rapid population growth still remains a critical national concern for our country. However, the choice depends on us. Let’s face it.


PHILIPPINE POPULATION GROWTH ; FACTORS AND OUTCOME Topic: Philippine Demography| Population | Country: Philippines

Last July 27,2014, the Philippines reached 100 million of its population. Because of its rapid growth of population, the country has a broad and limitless needs- education, health care, shelter , employment, and better sanitation to name a few. But is population growth really the root cause of these problems and needs? History seems to indicate otherwise.


Rapid human population growth has a lot of outcome. Population grows fastest in the world’s poorest countries. A lack of basic needs results in physical weakness and poor health. Poor health decreases the ability of the poor to work and put them deeper into poverty.Overpopulation and poverty have long been associated with increased death, and disease.

Instead of allowing poverty to persist, it is important to limit our number because in dense populations too- many lack adequate food, water, shelter,education and employment. High fertility, which has been traditionally associated with prosperity, prestige, and security for the future, now jeopardizes chances for many to achieve health and security. on the other hand, these factors can also affect the growth of the population in some other ways possible.

Due to many improvements in the field of medicine, many diseases and illness are cured. Sickness that used to be a threat to human are now curable. These improvements in the field of medicine affected the mortality rate of the the Philippines. Medicine that can cure specific sickness are now available to people. Lowering the mortality rate increases the population.

Education and health awareness of people makes people heathy and fit. They are less prone of sickness. They are concerned of their life and health. They tend to do things that can keep them healthy. Being healthy and fit also lowers the mortality rate since health concerned people are less likely to be sick and die.

Spiritual hierarchy has maintained its traditional stance against modern family planning (FP) methods, particularly modern (also referred to as “artificial”) contraceptives. On the other hand, the State acknowledges the difficulties posed for development by rapid population growth, especially among the poorest Filipinos. But it has been immobilized from effectively addressing the issue by the Spiritual hierarchy’s hard-line position, as well as the tendency of some politicians to cater to the demands of well-organized and impassioned single-issue groups for the sake of expediency. Caught between a hard Church and a soft State are the overwhelming majority of Filipinos who affirm the importance of helping women and couples control the size of their families and the responsibility of the government to provide budgetary support for modern FP services.

Shelter and proper housing is also accessible to Filipino families. Proper accommodation provides  lot of Filipino safety. This is a factor that affects the growth of population. Safety and soundness is now available to Filipinos who used to not having a house or proper shelter. Providing the accommodation keeps them away from thinking and worrying about safety and danger. This increases the population growth.

Many countries lack adequate supplies of basic materials needed to support their current population . Excess and extra portion of population with no where to put and of use because of the imbalance in the ratio of birth and death of the Filipinos. Rapid population growth can affect both the overall quality of life and the degree of human suffering on Earth.


by: Mapute, Chelsea Florence Lynch E.

Reality Faces by:Chelly Rivera

In every country there is always what we call the demography ,which is the most reliable calculus of what our national community can look forward to in the near and distant future.Each day in our lives we cant  stop something from coming, just like our population increases and changes.So our philippine demography refers to the studies on our employment,poverty,literacy,family planning,mortality and leading causes of death, that  gives us the correct informations and explanations on every cause in our country’s social problems. As the days passes by more people are born than people who dies. There are many reasons of why population increases.First is about our population system. Updated information on the size of the population will provide government planners, policy makers and administrators with data on which to base their social and economic development plans and program.  Specifically, in government, it serves as basis for: 1) redistricting and apportionment of congressional seats; 2) allocation of resources and revenues, such as the Internal Revenue Allotment for LGUs; 3) creation/conversion of political and administrative units, such as provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays; 4) formulation of policies concerning various segments of the population; and 5) development of policies and programs relative to the delivery of basic social services.

Next inline is the effects on employment,poverty incidence, unemployment and agriculture.A high rate of population growth, lack of access to land, insufficient job creation in industry, and a history of inappropriate economic policies contributed to high unemployment and underemployment and a relatively high proportion of the labor force being in low-productivity, service sector jobs in the late 1980s.The current state of the agriculture industry which cause high incidence of poverty and unemployment.  Roughly 60% of the Philippine population depends on income and employment in agriculture with generally very low productivity bringing low farmers’ income below the poverty threshold level. Recommendations are made to develop a modern agriculture industry responsive to provide the need for high income and employment. .Population growth averaged 2.9 percent from 1965 to 1980 and 2.5 percent in the late 1980s. While more than 40 percent of the population was below fifteen years of age, the growth of the working-age population–those fifteen years of age and older–was even more rapid than total population growth. In addition, the labor force participation rate–the proportion of working-age people who were in the labor force–rose approximately 5 percentage points during the 1980s, largely because of the increase in the proportion of women entering the work force.. Beyond the unemployment generated from economic mismanagement and crises was a more long-term, structural employment problem, a consequence of the highly concentrated control of productive assets and the inadequate number of work places created by investment in the industrial economy. The size and growth of the service sector was one indicator. Underemployment has been predominantly a problem for poor, less educated, and older people. The unemployed have tended to be young, inexperienced entrants into the labor force, who were relatively well educated and not heads of households. In the first half of the 1980s, approximately 20 percent of male household heads and 35 percent of female household heads were unable to find more than forty days of work a quarter.Underemployment is also highest in this sector where three (3) out of four (4) persons are underemployed.Underemployment in the agriculture sector is widespread because tending the farm does not require a full eight-hour work a day and is generally seasonal. For example, harvesting coconut for copra comes only once every three months. If a household member can find job outside the farm, it is usually another seasonal job like additional labor for land preparation and harvesting in other farms.The strong economic growth in the last few years may be the hope in bringing relief to the underemployed. But this growth occurs in the services sector, for example in hotels or restaurants, where opportunities are available.In theory, the poor in the agriculture sector can shift to the services sector but these employment opportunities require higher educational attainment. Most of the poor have only finished the elementary grade level. Hotels and restaurants, for example, require high school graduates

Third is the functional literacy which refers to a person who can read, write and compute or one who can read, write, compute and comprehend.Many people in our society are functionaly literate.This is a good sign sign were people knows something like reading and writing.But we must still care for those people who are not functionaly literate for they can still be a big help for our coming generations

Fourth is the Methods of family planning and unpplaned pregnancy which deals to women who didnt except that she’ll get pregnant.Modern methods of family planning, and widespread information about how to use it, unplanned pregnancy is one of the most common medical problems faced by sexually active women. Abortion, the most usual solution to the problem of unplanned pregnancy, is the most common operation among women in the fertile age range.The average fertile couple trying for a child may take three or four months to conceive, and many couples go through a stage where they are not exactly planning to have a child now, but at the same time they are not exactly doing everything in their power to prevent it either. Women who use the contraceptive pill are often advised to switch to a barrier method of contraception before they intend to start ‘trying’ for a child. Barrier methods are inherently less effective and if the couple has difficulty using them, and happens to be highly fertile it is quite possible that the pregnancy intended for three months hence arrives sooner than planned.

Fifth inline is the mortality decline which gives the all death reported in a given situation.While under-five mortality has declined slightly in recent years from  deaths from, infant mortality rates have remained unchanged. The relationship of a mother’s level of education to the health and well-being of her child is evident in that the probability of dying among infants whose mother received no formal schooling is two and a half times higher than that for infants whose mother has had some high school education.Lack of sufficient medical care, before and at the time of delivery, can increase the risk of complications and infections that can cause death or serious illness for either the mother or the newborn.

And lastly, is about the three main cause of death in our country.Heart disease was the top most caused death in the Philippines population If we compare United States and most other countries’ mortality rates, diseases of the heart remain the top cause of death.Top 2 is the diseases of the vascular system The common cause of both top 1 and top 2 are arterial blockage or arteriosclerosis, smoking increase intake of fat and salty foods, and inactivity. 3rd is the Nucleoplasm-Cancer it is one of the most common death in the world .

Everything in our surroundings must be taken care, problems in our government must be solved, and every person in this world must be loved,cared and respected.Each one of us is dreaming to have a good and peaceful society.Everyone must be aware of every thing that is coming and going. Nothing/no one should be left behind for everything that is happening in our country today, is the result of our right and wrong doings.There is still time to make our society a better place which complaints are vanished and thankfulness are in need.


On Philippine Economy and Politics

Looking at our political development, Philippine politics has already started even before the pre-colonial era; from islands considered as single states governed by datus until forming the whole archipelago as one single state with united people under the rule of a single leader. Different factors have caused for our state and politics to develop, and one concrete example is the colonization of different countries.

Basically, we are fortunate citizens because first, we have a government that keeps our country disciplined and well-developed, second, we have an agency that promulgate ordinances, statutes and bills for the betterment of our state and for the people and lastly, we have an organization officiated by elected representatives from different branches whom we look up to and lead us, as well.

But despite these developments, are we really electing leaders for our betterment or are we making and producing more corrupt leaders out of these elections?

Built infrastructures and programs made for the people are not justifiable means of the rampant corruption happening in the current Philippine politics. Ladies and gentlemen, if we try to look at the larger part of the painting, we will see and learn that it is not Philippine politics that has a problem, but rather the persons inside the system.

As citizens of this republic, we are the first-hand beneficiaries of all the government officials have done, and in a democratic society, we are of good hold in the government; but in the present setting, we can seldom see idealists who care so much for our country and the people. Most Filipinos tend to forget that we are electing officials to represent us and not enslave or abuse us, thus making the citizens as great contributors on why Philippine politics have become like this, we are overpowered by fear, resulting to passive and coward constituents.

Politics won’t smell bad if we use our right to suffrage very well; if we will be more critical and enrich our sense of nationalism and if we don’t degrade our dignity by allowing our votes to be bought by candidates.

Complaints, street parliamentary, ranting, defamation; yes, that’s what we see in the status quo. Citizens are full of regrets after every election, but whose fault is that? Why are they only blaming the officials? Didn’t they know how hard it is to sit on the position and try to make a change? And if the elected leaders fail to do their works, who should the people blame? Them? Or the ones who voted for them?

Yes, this is the face of Philippine politics; from passive voters to selfish candidates to corrupt leaders. Why should we wait for the next generations to suffer and continue the dirty cycle? Let’s start from ourselves; we should learn to think nationally. We should put leaders who, if not the best, have the better track record among the others, who has advocacies that include the sectors that need more help and who has “glocalization” included in the platform. By then, the face of Philippine politics might still have a chance to be cleansed.

Let’s start from ourselves and ignite change.



The Philippine Demography presents and shows demographic elevation and collision in the whole society of the Philippines. It shows the study of changes such as number of deaths, birthrate, some illnesses that occur over a period of time in human populations.

A population-control bill in the Philippines is likely to be passed that supports coercive government-funded family-planning initiatives for demographically targeted populations. If passed, one year or even one generation from now, the root problems that this bill seeks to address will still exist. In fact, they’re likely to be exaggerated. Philippines faces increasing economic, socio-cultural, political, and security problems while their populations age start to decline. Widespread use of contraceptives preference for having fewer children pushed the fertility rates of developed countries below replacement levels. The population control program began in the Philippines through the use of the mass media, legislation, government policies, and the promotion of contraceptives. This program has succeeded in bringing down Philippine fertility rates during the past three and a half decades, principally by persuading people to have smaller families. Mortality and life expectancies depend much on the medical sciences´ capacity to reduce deaths and prolong life, but these have their limits. Improvement in health care will not be unending. When the period of improvement ceases, that is, when infant and child mortality has been lowered to the minimum, and health care can no further extend life expectancy, the large number of deaths among the by then immense elderly population will contribute to population decline. The Philippines is not exempted from the global trend of decreasing TFRs (Total Fertility Rates) and increasing life expectancy, which cause world population today to age and later to decline. The economic, social, security, and other implications of this trend are forcing many governments to encourage citizens to have more babies for the sake of the nation, and to facilitate immigration to have more laborers and to bodily replenish their population. Meanwhile, in the Philippines, which will probably experience the same problems within decades, many legislators and agencies still push for intensified population control. Population control is done not only through the distribution of contraceptives, but worse, by creating a mentality that goes against large families in sex education modules and in the mass media, and by creating an atmosphere less and less conducive to larger families. One of population increase is on employment rate. The employment rate or the proportion of employed persons is the total of labor force recored. According to my further research, Labor Policy in the Philippines is specified mainly by the country’s Labor Code of the Philippines and through other labor laws. They cover 38 million Filipinos that belong to the labor force and to some extent, also the overseas workers. They aim to address Filipino workers’ legal rights and their limitations with regard to the hiring process, working conditions, benefits, policymaking on labor within the company, activities, and relations with employers. The Philippines is a country that has one of the biggest available pools of qualified workers. Unemployment occurs when people are without work and actively seeking work. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force. Another is the Poverty Incidence. Poverty remains a critical social problem that needs to be addressed in the Philippines. Functional Literacy rate is higher among persons with higher level of education. Without the basic ability to understand simple reading material, students can’t absorb information from textbooks for study purposes, nor do they easily comprehend general literature for functional use or pleasure. These children are at a great disadvantage in all areas of learning; from elementary school and throughout their adult lives. Students with weak reading and numeracy abilities will often drop out of school. Unfortunately that means their access to many profitable, knowledge-based jobs is limited. In fact, it appears that an individual’s employment outcome can be significantly affected without strong literacy skills – and is even more of a factor than whether they graduated high school or not.

Demographics are used by governments, corporations and non-government organizations to learn more about a population’s characteristics for many purposes, including policy development and economic market research. Sadly, Philippine poverty statistics support the view that recent economic growth has not been inclusive. One reason is that the growth of the agriculture sector has been sluggish. Yet, more than half of the population depends for their livelihood on agriculture and about one-third of the work force are gainfully employed in the sector. The administration officials misjudge the thinking of the average man on the street. They thought Filipinos prefer dole-outs to work. They were wrong. Having a job is better because it is not only good for one’s pocket but it’s also good for one’s soul. Overpopulation may be debatable, but poverty and unsustainable practices are reality and life is geared towards raising consciousness about alternative ways to operate as a society.



Time Will Tell by Jezrielle Pizarras

The increase in Philippine population is attributed mainly to the excess of births over deaths. Like many other developing countries, our country, the Philippines has a high birth rate and a gradually declining mortality rate. This problem causes a high rate of poverty in our country.

Data from the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA)’s Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS) showed that poverty incidence among Filipino individuals rose by 1.2 percentage points to 25.8 percent in the first semester of 2014 from the 24.6 percent registered in the first half of 2013. Population increase and poverty cannot be separated especially in developing countries.

All of us have probably experienced being stuck in traffic and having these kids perform a beatbox or song number (or sometimes even both) in their high-pitched, nasally voices and we think of them as such nuisances or that they are putting their lives at risk by merging in the highways. It is easy for some elders to tell these street rappers to stay in school, but if we really think about it, there are many factors that made them cut school or drop out altogether. One is the inadequate public school and school materials. Another is the lack of the parents’ education level. Lastly, the low income of the child’s parents combined with many mouths to feed. The parents of these homeless youth do not know any better because they too were most likely born into poverty and it is the only life they’ve known. Often they are uneducated and do not know methods of family planning and that is why they have more offspring than they can afford. Based on the 2002 statistics say that 81% of women aged 15-19 and 63% of women aged 20- 14 do not use birth control methods.

To solve the problem in unemployment, our government followed the 12 year basic education program. The K to 12 program seeks to give every Filipino student – especially the poor – the opportunity to receive quality education that is globally competitive and matches the international standards. People are not sure if such solution can work, because of the increase in the expenses. There are also problems with the lack of instruction paraphernalia, competent instructors, classrooms and adequate educational facilities such as libraries and laboratories, but the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has approved a $300 million loan to the Philippines to support the new school system, with a focus on the addition of two years of senior high school.

Since one of the factors that affect the rate of poverty is literacy, K-12 may be of help to our continuous population increase. Graduates of the Senior High have the choice to go to college or to start working because by then, their education would suffice to the standards and their age would be appropriate to join the working force. There are numerous of questions regarding the effectiveness of the program, but we should trust our policymakers and hope for the best. Only time will tell.

It’s a work: Economy of the Philippines by: Cherry Belle V. Dag-um

Philippines as a sovereign state obviously has “Economy.” But before anything else, what does this really mean? Is this just a simple money that our state has? Or does this indicate how rich or how poor our country is? This might be a simple three-syllable word, yet it has broad meaning.

Economy refers to the  entire network of producersdistributors, and consumers of goods and services in a local, regional, or national community. Economic activity involves natural resources, labor and capital. Underlying these involvement that shape for the evolution of the economy are geographical location, culture, values, political organizations, law and education.

Since the end of the Second World War, the Philippine economy has had a mixed history of growth and development. Over the years, the Philippines has gone from being one of the richest countries in Asia (following Japan) to being one of the poorest. Up until the 1980’s the Philippines was in pace with large economies of Southeast Asia that were co-founders of Asean (Association of Southeast Asian Nations): Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. During the uncertainties of the 1980’s and the economic crisis that hit the country toward the end of the Marcos regime, sustained economic reforms and large foreign direct investments made these economies surge faster. There has always been the rise and fall of the Economy.

The leaders of our nation used nationalism as the instrument by which we defined our efforts to attain economic independence. One of the ways of expressing their nationalism was having the idea that the nation must produce its needs through enterprises owned by the citizens of the Philippines to attain successful economic growth.

As of year 2014 The Philippines’ economic freedom score is 62.2, making its economy the 76th freest in the 2015 Index. Its score has increased by 2.1 points since last year, with notable improvements in financial freedom, freedom from corruption, and labor freedom outweighing declines in business freedom and the management of public spending. Despite notable progress since 2011, however, lingering institutional challenges will require a deeper commitment to reform. Corruption continues to be a serious cause for concern, jeopardizing prospects for long-term economic development. This issue has always been one of the restraints of attaining positive economic growth.

The interplay between political and economic institutions is a universal constant.

Economics is concerned with studying and influencing the economy. Politics is the theory and practice of influencing people through the exercise of power, e.g. governments, elections and political parties. In theory, economics could be non-political. An ideal economist should ignore any political bias or prejudice to give neutral unbiased information and recommendations on how to improve the economic performance of a country but in practice there is a strong relationship between economics and politics because the performance of the economy is one of the key political battlegrounds. Politics and political institutions affect our economy. the issues in our politicians affect it. Not to deny the issue of graft and corruption. This has been our hindrance.

I would strongly believe that people sitting in the government has a great role in our economy because it is their work to boost up our country no to get something from it. Poverty is rampant in our society so try to think on how will the country improve if there are lots of things in our country that were denied to be improved. Remember, “Great things come from small beginnings.”

Only if politicians greatly look on how to help the poor and not to make the poor poorer, there would be an easier solution on how to solve the country’s economy for this would affect its citizen’s life. There must be no time wasted, before it gets worse better cure it today or else it would be harder to go back and improve. They must be transparent enough on working for our economy for everyone’s benefit.

The following additional comments should be considered:

1. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Philippines expanded 1.80 percent in the second quarter of 2015 over the previous quarter. GDP Growth Rate in Philippines averaged 1.18 percent from 1998 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 3.30 percent in the first quarter of 2010 and a record low of -2.40 percent in the first quarter of 2009. GDP Growth Rate in Philippines is reported by the Philippine National Statistical Coordination Board. Even though many Filipinos that are experiencing poverty there has been a little improvement of our economy. We may not feel it yet but the most important here is that we have moved up, but this doesn’t mean that we are good enough, because we are not yet on the level on becoming a first world country.

  1. The Philippines has a status of emerging economy. In recent years, the country has been steadily growing mainly due to inflow of foreign direct investment and remittances. The Philippines is the world’s largest center for business process outsourcing. The country also has a strong industrial sector based on the manufacturing of electronics and other high-tech components for overseas corporations. The Philippines is rich in natural resources; it has significant reserves of chromite, nickel, copper, coal and oil. With our natural resources, we are much capable of boosting our economy, we just lack devices and tactics on how to wisely use these. Many countries are much interested with our resources because like as well it will help their country. These resources must be for the Philippines, it is for us to use for our own good and for only oneself. There is no reason of not striving hard for our country because there are lot of things that can be done with our resources, importation and exportation are not impossible with abundant resources we have.
  1. Filipinos who go aboard to work–-known asOverseas Filipino Workersor OFWs—are a significant contributor to the economy. OFW remittances is also credited for the Philippines’ recent economic growth resulting to investment status upgrades from credit ratings. Much as they say, Filipinos always look out for the good of their families, that is why there are many OFW’s for the reason of their family. These people are not only working and giving benefit for their families, but they are also contributing into our economy. The Philippine economy is in a sound position today in part because of the steady growth and size of remittances of OFWs (overseas Filipino workers) to the country. The volume of these remittances has continually grown over time as more and more Filipino workers have found jobs abroad. Remittances represent a portion of the earnings of Filipinos working abroad that are transferred to their home families. Remittances sent through the international banking system are immediately caught in the country’s balance of payments which is tracked by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP). The task at hand is to explore how worker remittances contribute to recent economic developments in the country.

Corruption as hindrance of our development must be stopped. Officials must not think of their own, because it is their duty to work for the people and the country. Corruption is rampant in our government and so it must be really hard on changing this one, but if officials are thinking and people are doing their part on choosing the appropriate leaders for the country this will slightly replenished.

Philippines must use the resources that we have. We must use technology for this without affecting the lives of the farmers or the government must provide a transparent solution to the farmers for this case. The government must enact laws regarding with this, especially to the illegal business by foreigners even by the country’s own citizens. This law must truly be enacted. Projects for the poor must be as well transparent because it is worsening and this would greatly affect the economy. Laws enacted by the government regarding on graft and corruption must be strongly and fully implemented.

The Philippine economy is basically a work for everyone, most especially the people sitting in the government. We, the Filipinos, as part of the government must also take part. As citizen of the Republic of the Philippines, we are entitled by law as members of the political community. We take part of the economy of our country that’s why officials in the politics are not the only ones responsible for this issue.  We should always think wisely as to how do we maximize the resources that we have. As citizen of the country, it is also our obligation to engage to gainful work and contribute for state development. We must work together for a goal. None of us wants to suffer in the upcoming generations. We have brilliant minds for our development, we must deal with it. Officials must do their part to truly serve the country, because they are the ones which people look up to. There should be models of good service for the people to follow. Everyone must live by that statement ” The interplay between political institutions and economy is a universal constant.”


Economy of the Philippines

Philippine Economy

BY: Kiara Daenielle G. Lazo


First, what is “economy”? An economy or economic system consists of the production, distribution or trade, and consumption of limited goods and services by different agents in a given geographical location. The economic agents can be individuals, businesses, organizations, or governments. The Economy of the Philippines is the 39th largest in the world, according to 2014 International Monetary Fund statistics, and is also one of the emerging markets. The Philippines is considered as a newly industrialized country, which has been transitioning from one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. In 2014, the GDP by Purchasing power parity was estimated to be at $692.223 billion. Most industries in the country are concentrated in urban areas around Metro Manila, while Metro Cebu is also becoming an attraction for foreign and local investors.

The Philippine economy has had significant ups and downs, since the end of World War II. Originally, the country had a fast growing economy and was at one time one of the richest countries in East Asia. During the regime of Ferdinand Marcos, the economy at first grew but eventually slowed and even turned negative because of corruption, and political uncertainty and unrest. A severe recession happened in 1984-1985 and the economy shrunk by more than 10%. In 1998, the Philippine economy deteriorated as a result of Asian financial crisis. However, the administration of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo pushed toward faster economic growth and Philippines once again re-emerge as one of the growing economies in Southeast Asia.

But the Philippines never had it so good. But with a slowing global economy and an election coming up in 2016, what can it expect from the future? The economy has been performing creditably. GDP grew at an average of 5.9 per cent over the last three years amid a lingering global economic slowdown and natural disasters. The economy has outperformed most ASEAN countries in the past few years and will be a major player in the envisaged ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). However, the official growth target of 6.5–7.5 per cent for 2014 has been revised downward to 6–7 per cent following government underspending, weak performance of agriculture and the impact of natural disasters. The ADB has also lowered its GDP forecast to 6 per cent. The government expects a rebound to a 7–8 per cent growth rate in 2015, which is expected to be maintained until the end of the current administration’s term in 2016. This bold forecast seems based on strong fundamentals: a stable macroeconomic framework (a regime of low inflation and larger fiscal space), continued rise in remittances from Filipino workers overseas (around US$23 billion in 2013), a resurgent manufacturing sector and well-performing service sector, a consistent build-up of foreign exchange reserves (currently at US$79.8 billion) and credit rating upgrades from international credit rating agencies. Yet there are some potential troubles — external and internal — looming on the horizon that could, if not properly managed, spoil this impressive performance and dampen future growth prospects. The economy is becoming more integrated into the global and regional economies, so weaknesses in major trading partners will impact on domestic growth prospects. Trade is largest with East Asia (51 per cent of total value exports and 39 per cent of total value of imports) and ASEAN (16 and 22 per cent of exports and imports respectively).

As of 2015, there are some reports highlights. Economic growth slowed down to 5.3 percent in the third quarter of 2014, due to weak government spending on the demand side and agricultural production on the supply side, and Government consumption contracted by 2.6 percent while infrastructure spending fell by 6.2 percent. Contributing to weak government spending are the Supreme Court decision which found some provisions of the Disbursement Acceleration Program unconstitutional, budget execution bottlenecks, and slow disbursement for Typhoon Yolanda reconstruction. Despite the slowdown, more than a million jobs were created in October 2014, although the quality of jobs remains a challenge. The 2013 Annual Poverty Indicator Survey (APIS) finds that real income of the bottom 20 percent grew much faster than the rest of the population. The survey also confirms that the government’s conditional cash transfer program is reaching the poor, as reflected in the substantial growth of domestic cash transfers to the bottom 20 percent.

Eventhough Philippines has been through a lot of roller coaster ride, Philippines manage to stand and make a better economy for us, Filipinos. Now, Philippines is one of the fastest economy in Asia. It is needed to continue this momentum in the next 15 years so that the lower income residents will feel the growth. As time goes by, do we need to settle for a “better economy” Is “better” enough for us? Why can’t we make it best? You know why because there is no good in corruption. We’re in reality, let’s say that the Philippine economy is getting better. But don’t be blind about the real issues. But then, there is no point in blaming. The assigned people should make a plan or move to have a best economy. Because Philippines will and can make a change!


Comte, Martineau, and Marx

Aguste Comte

French philosopher Auguste Comte (1798–1857) greatly advanced the field of social science, giving it the name “sociology” and influenced many 19th-century social intellectuals. He rejected religion and royalty, focusing instead on the study of society, which he named “sociology.” He broke the subject into two categories: the forces holding society together (“social statics”) and those driving social change (“social dynamics”). Comte’s ideas and use of scientific methods greatly advanced the field.

I believe that his attempt to unify history, psychology and economics through scientific understanding of society is his one way of refining and promoting his “new world order.”

He produced is major work the six-volume Course of Positive Philosophy. In this work, Comte argued that, like the physical world, society operated under its own set of laws.

Comte also wrote the System of Positive Polity. In his formulation of a “religion of humanity,” Comte proposed a religious order based on reason and humanity, emphasizing morality as the cornerstone of human political organization.

Harriet Martineau

First Woman Sociologist

Born in 1802, Harriet Martineau is considered the first woman sociologist. In 1853, she was the first to translate August Comte’s work from French to English. It is through this translation that English-speaking scholars could begin to learn the works of Comte, who is known as the father of sociology.

Martineau had a career full of writing for various journals, newspapers and, of course, her own books. Beginning in 1831, she began writing a series of stories, called Illustrations of Political Economy. Using the utilitarian principles of gaining happiness and the teaching of Adam Smith on free trade, she hoped to teach ordinary people how to better understand things such as tariffs, taxes and the state budget.

She formulated a comparative method for studying societies and analyzed the new American culture by measuring it against carefully stated principles. Quite possibly, she wrote the first “methodological essay” ever published, How to Observe Morals and Manners. Her greatest originality was in her method.

Karl Marx

Karl Marx is credited with being a founder of communism, but Karl Marx’s economic writings were generally about capitalism and why it was doomed. It was later thinkers like Lenin who really developed the ideas of communism, so in a nutshell Marx’s principal contribution to communism was the idea that Capitalism was doomed. Marx while a communist thinker would really more accurately be described as anti-capitalist.

Marx wrote a relatively small pamphlet read by many called the Communist Manifesto, which was a call to the working classes to unite and try to bring about a revolution, but this was written as a persuasive essay really and does not really explain the economic thinking of Marx. Marx’s magnum opus in which his economic theories are laid out is Das Kapital. This book is in fact not about communism but about capitalism, which Marx thinks will collapse for a number of reasons. Probably the most important reason is the loss of excess value that is obtained from exploitation of laborers.

In an oversimplified explanation: A capitalist makes all of his profits from excess value beyond what he pays his workers and that to remain competitive, the capitalist will be required to replace workers with machines (from which he makes no extra profit). This will cut into capitalist profits and force some firms to go out of business leading to a crash in which fewer firms survive and grow larger. There would be repeated cycles of this with episodes of overproduction and subsequent crashes getting larger and larger as the firms grow larger and capitalists’ profits continue to be cut as described above.

Chelsea Pioquinto

The Pioneering Minds of Sociology and Anthropology by KRISTIENE FERNANDEZ

Auguste Comte

Auguste Comte was best known for founding positivism, a philosophical system that acknowledges only observable, natural phenomena and that attempts to use scientific law as the basis for comprehending relationships between observable facts. Comte also is recognized as one of the originators of the science of sociology, believing that human societies are natural systems whose order and progress can be studied through scientific methodology. A deliberate and rationalistic thinker, Comte hoped to use his science of sociology to achieve spiritual and social reform and, ultimately, a new social system.

Karl Marx

The most influential socialist thinker from the 19th century is Karl Marx. Karl Marx can be considered a great philosopher, social scientist, historian or revolutionary. Marx proposed what is known as the conflict theory. The conflict theory looks at how certain social interactions occur through conflict. People engage in conflict everyday to gain more power then others in society. Karl Marx is known for studying the conflicts that occur between different classes. Karl Marx has introduced some radical ideas and theories to society through his writings. Karl Marx describes two theories in the Communist Manifesto. One is his political theory and the other his economic theory. His political theory is about class struggle. Most of the class struggle encompasses his ideas of oneself in the workplace and life in general. Karl Marx believed that class struggle would be the seed for revolution. He thought that as long as there was competition between capitalists, capitalism was bound to fail. He believed that if members of the working class work together, and believe in the same ideals, they can definitely bring about significant social changes.

Emile Durkheim

A prominent figure in the French school of Sociology, Durkheim is best known for his establishment of a social theory which views sociology as a natural science subject to empirical study. Unlike his contemporaries, including English philosopher Herbert Spencer and anthropologist Edward Tylor, who emphasized the role of the individual in the development of cultural phenomena, Durkheim asserted the converse, maintaining that, although individuals comprise society, society is a separate and distinctive entity or reality, a causal result of the associations, reactions, and combinations of individuals’ behaviors and psychic realities. His most influential contribution to social theory is his concept of the social fact, which he defines as “ways of acting, thinking, and feeling, exterior to the individual and endowed with a power of coercion.” Suicide is perhaps the most personal action an individual can take upon oneself and yet it has a profound social impact. Perhaps this is because social relationships play such an important role in its causation. It is also, perhaps the least understood crime, or act, due to the fact that obviously, the dead can’t speak. Emile Durkheim was instrumental in bringing a new understanding of suicide, when in a sociological study he conceived his theory of suicide, and it’s relationship with society. Perhaps put more accurately, his theory was about society, and its relationship with suicide.

For Durkheim, suicide was a symptom of a wider social disease. To cure it, society had to be reformed. Emile Durkheim was first and foremost a sociologist, so his studies are sociological in nature. His main principle was that social facts such as suicide must be studied as realities external to the individual. Suicide, although apparently a highly personal act, was explicable only by the state of the society to which the individual belonged.